Heteronormativity supports the idea that there are only two genders and those two genders should only engage in sexual or romantic relationships with the opposite sex. Heteronormative culture privileges cisgender heterosexual people. They don’t’ have to worry about the adversities and concerns that queer people do. Their identities are the standard, rather than “queer”.
Nonviolent men are rewarded for basic human decency. Men that don’t abuse women or just “seem” respectful are “appreciated” for it. However, this is literally just the bare minimum. The standard for men is extremely low because society expects them to be violent.
Internalised misogyny refers to when a woman (or person that is negatively affected by misogyny) internalises sexist patriarchal values. Misogyny is the hatred or dislike of women and femininity. We all learn to internalise sexist messages about the inferiority of women versus the superiority of men and masculinity.
Gender essentialism is the idea that there are traits, opinions and characteristics that are explicitly female and feminine, and there are others that are explicitly male and masculine. This forms the idea that men and women have different opinions, traits and actions because of fundamental differences between the sexes. Basically, it’s the belief that our biological composition (sex) is the primary reason for differences between men and women.
Black women’s race is used to validate men’s objectification of our womanhood. Sexual value is attached to their race and black women are portrayed as lustful temptresses. Pornography, the music industry and the media are largely responsible for the abuse of black women.
Society tells us that a middle-class white woman’s issues are the epitome of all women’s struggles. We focus on the gender pay gap in developed countries and major industries but ignore violence against transwomen, black women and Muslim women. We ignore sex workers who are assaulted and exploited, and queer women in certain countries that face anti-LGBT legislation.
Fragile masculinity is defined as “the anxiety felt by men who believe they are falling short of the cultural standards of manhood”. This is proven to lead to overcompensation when men attempt to prove their manliness. This often results in an aggressive response.
Toxic masculinity is the belief that “real men” must be strong, tough and independent. Toxic masculinity encompasses the social ideals of masculinity that are pushed to force the image of a ‘real man’.
Gender socialisation is the process by which we are introduced to gender roles. We are taught how to dress, what to do, how to act and ultimately, how to “fit in”. What does this process entail?